polytene [ˈpɒlɪˌti¢°n] adj (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Genetics) denoting a type of giant-size chromosome consisting of many replicated genes in parallel, found esp in Drosophila larvae [from poly- + Greek taenia band]
Polytene chromosomes are giant chromosomes common to many dipteran (two-winged) flies. They begin as normal chromosomes, but through repeated rounds of DNA replication without any cell division (called endoreplication), they become large, banded chromosomes (see figure). For unknown reasons, the centromeric regions of the chromosomes do not endoreplicate very well. As a result, the centromeres of all the chromosomes bundle together in a mass called the chromocenter.
Biochemical data had strongly suggested that the oligonucleotide d(GGGGTTGGGG) assembled into higher order structures under the appropriate conditions (5), but the morphological nature of these structures was unknown. AFM analyses of G-wires immediately gave significant insight into their structural nature (4) (Fig. 4). They are long, linear polymers. Their measured height is approximately 25-30 Å, which agrees well with the diameter of a G-quartet determined by NMR and x-ray crystallography (16-18). This is an interesting finding because the height of B-DNA in the AFM is typically 5-7Å, which is less than half its width determined by X-ray crystallography. Thus, it appears that G-wires are more robust than B-DNA in the sense that they are not compressed by the scanning tip. An additional possibility is that B-DNA undergoes a severe conformation change when absorbed to a surface, but G-wires do not. However, previous work determining the helical period of B-DNA on mica surfaces suggests that it is not significantly altered upon binding to the mica (19).
oligonucleotide d(GGGGTTGGGG) assembled into higher order structures
These are telomeric folks! meaning capping uncapping, circular dna, senescence or immortal?
whatever is chosen for us!
================== G-Wires: Self-Assembly of a Telomeric Oligonucleotide, d(GGGGTTGGGG), into Large Superstructures
The telomeric DNA oligonucleotide 5'-G4T2G4-3' (Tet 1.5) spontaneously assembles into large superstructures we have termed G-wires. G-wires can be resolved by gel electrophoresis as a ladder pattern. The self-association of Tet 1.5 is noncovalent and exhibits characteristics of G4-DNA, a parallel four-stranded structure stabilized by guanine tetrads. Formation of G-wires is dependent upon the presence of Na+ and/or K+, and once formed, G-wires are resistant to denaturation............
,,,"The results described here extend our understanding of the structural potential of G-rich nucleic acids and may provide insight into the possible roles of G-rich sequences and the novel structures they can form in biological systems."
As you know from your study of genetics, a great wealth of genetic information is already available for Drosophila. It is a remarkable model organism for both studies of transmission inheritance, embryonic development and control of gene expression. Aside from its genetics and short life cycle, the fruit fly has some unusual biology, such as polytene chromosomes and imaginal discs, which developmental researchers have put to good use.
In this exercise, we will Drosophila polytene chromosomes to demonstrate how genes are able to respond to their environment. Or specifically how increasing the temperature can cause the activation of banks of genes that code for heat shock proteins, whose function is to stabilize the 3D structure of critical enzyme systems. We will start by learning how to dissect salivary glands from third instar larvae. We will then prepare polytene chromosomes, identify them and compare the puffing pattern of heat-shocked larvae to that of normal larvae.
wonder if the brown cells we see are the salivary cells of the fruit fly , that is where these polytene chromosomes would be most at home at unless they are now made of artificial poly then I think we would be looking at an artificial polycomb sac containing an artificial polytene genome or antisense as emplored by isis pharma?
The it patent also would be a great coating to get the cells to accept it, the chitin , fungus poly N AG
In the study, scientists showed that the ROP18 protein disables host cell proteins that would otherwise pop a protective bubble the parasite makes for itself.
The parasite puts the bubble on like a spacesuit by forming a membrane around itself when it enters host cells. This protects it from the hostile environment inside the cell, which would otherwise kill it.
"If we can find therapies that block ROP18 and other parasite proteins like it, that could give the host the upper hand in the battle against infection," said first author Sarah Fentress, a graduate student in the laboratory of L. David Sibley, professor of molecular microbiology.
"The exact role of ROP18 and related proteins in human disease remains to be studied. But mice are natural hosts of Toxoplasma, so studies in laboratory mice are relevant to the spread of infection," said Sibley.
In the new study, Fentress showed that the ROP18 protein binds to a class of host proteins known as immunity-related GTPases. Tests in cell cultures and animal models showed that this binding leads to a reaction that disables the GTPases, which normally would rupture the parasite's protective membrane.
aqt: how sickening XDeliliah.. I am truly sorry for your suffering as I can relate all too well. May you find peace.
Sept 16, 2013 15:09:15 GMT -5
kansas: Hello to all of you suffering from Morgellons I had the worst of it (hopefully) for a year and a half!
Oct 2, 2013 21:57:30 GMT -5
kansas: I just found this site and wanted to share what has finally stopped the horrific itching for me. It's seems that MSM and daily vitamin c, taken daily is helping. i have not idea why? i also think a dehumidifier and a uv air cleaner was used around the same
Oct 2, 2013 22:03:43 GMT -5
kansas: This is huge. A infectious disease doc on a plane with my best friend said this is bacterial. Really?! Not in our heads!
Oct 2, 2013 22:07:29 GMT -5
kansas: One more thing before I go, I sort of think this bacteria lives in our mouths. I have be using a germ killing mouthwash for the tooth pain and think it is helping the fight.
Oct 2, 2013 22:13:51 GMT -5
kansas: what is also terrible about this Morgellons is the predatory salesmen on the net and doctors pretending this is imaginary when we need medical help!
Oct 2, 2013 22:20:13 GMT -5
chelliebelle2468: does anyone know anything about the conditions and diseases associated from HLA-B27?
Oct 15, 2013 14:52:27 GMT -5
RA: You should try smothering them with petroleum jelly (thickly) for 3 straight days (like you would lice or chiggers).
Dec 20, 2013 21:34:23 GMT -5
morgellons101: If a human drank the goat milk could they be affected? could they possibly develop diseases like the mysterious Morgellons, which everyone in the public health protection agencies seem to want to hide it and call it an imaginary disease? I looked into it a
Dec 27, 2013 8:15:59 GMT -5
morgellons101: Someone discovered that Morgellons gene code is the same as spider silk fiber - Look up goat milk experiment scientist in montreal changed the goats gene to produce these fibers.
Dec 27, 2013 8:18:07 GMT -5
morgellons101: heres the video on youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YRAdgJze4aA
Dec 27, 2013 8:19:05 GMT -5
Morg33: No doubt..probably why there is so much research and such going on regarding spider silk and replication......is anybody else seeing more and more chemtrails and is it me or are they flying lower and lower?
Jan 7, 2014 19:46:51 GMT -5
jonsi: I've been gone way to long. I need to catch up on all the new info you all have here! Where should I go first? Thanks
Apr 3, 2014 3:00:53 GMT -5
Fl4sh: Just saw something peculiar. Two street sweepers just came down my street. Wouldn't have thought twice but as I thought...why two? I noticed they spray someting first I wonder what they spray? Been sneezing ever since.......hmm.....any help?
Apr 25, 2014 10:33:40 GMT -5
Steve frey: Morgellons 101 can you please provide your source of information regarding morgellons and spider silk. Spider silks composition aligns very closely with "spongin" which is a product of sea sponges, this would provide strong support for my sponge theory .
May 1, 2014 12:56:29 GMT -5